Articles About motor design
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Energy-challenged industries--and countries--can benefit from improved motor design and materials.
In this centuryâ™s complex, ever- changing world of manufacturing, such capabilities as hardware and software expertise, effective location and distribution, business savvy and yes, even luck, are some of the cardinal requirements for running a successful business.
The complete Product News section from the October 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and research from published information is used to compare the features of various coil configurations.
This paper describes the development of an educational program centered on electric motor and electric vehicle technology at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Edgerton Center.
These versatile, low-cost and high-torque motors may be used open loop or as full servos - and several levels in between. The motor stator laminate designs divide these motors into those optimized for full stepping, and those optimized for micro stepping and servo operation. These differences can be easily measured with basic meters and oscilloscopes. Motor to motor variations can also be easily measured, and motor inductance at nominal speed and current can also be determined.
According to the Department of Energy (DOE), more than half of all electrical energy consumed in the U.S. is used by electric motors. To address this, several years ago, the DOE conducted a technical study as to what could be done to raise the efficiency levels of âœsmallâ motors. After years of study and litigation, the Small Motor Rule (SMR) was passed that covers two-digit NEMA frame single- and three-phase ¼ through 3 horsepower motors in open enclosures.
University lab's motor eliminates pricey rare-earth magnets.
The use of motor structures which can concentrate magnetic flux allows ferrite PM motors to achieve performance and power densities that approach those of PM motors using rare earth magnets, but without the cost penalties and supply source concerns of rare earth magnets.
One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the inventionâ”more than a century agoâ”of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductorsâ”along with digital controlsâ”have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.
This article presents the first kW-Class, 3-phase GaN-based inverter. Hard-switched at 100-kHz PWM, its heart is a 6-in-1 power module with 600-V GaN power HEMTs, achieving a new efficiency of 98.5%, a more than 2% improvement.
Modern aircraft, missiles and space vehicles employ a large number of electric motors and actuators. While the basic design of these motors is in many respects very similar to that of their automotive and industrial counterparts, motors for aerospace applications differ significantly in some areas.
JBT Corporation benefits from Kollmorgen Hygienic motor design in food and beverage application.
In Part I we explored various motor technologies used today for industrial and traction motor design. Here in Part II we will explore another motor option: reluctance motors.
This paper presents a joint project conducted by Ashwoods Electric Motors and Oerlikon Fairfield that uses planetary drives with an integrated electric motor. Current solutions used in production of off-highway vehicles rely upon large, heavy and inefficient brushed DC or induction motors, coupled to a planetary gearbox. This presents a number of challenges to the vehicle designers such as: limited vehicle range, limited space around the motor/drivetrain, and motor durability. The proposed integrated system utilizes an Oerlikon Fairfield Torque Hub, widely used in off-highway vehicles, and the Ashwoods first-to-market, interior permanent magnet motor. How these products are integrated, i.e. incorporating a brake solution, represents a market-changing product. Using interior permanent magnet (IPM) technology in the motor design means the motor can be up to 70% lighter, 70% smaller and 20% more efficient than traditional motors used in off-highway traction applications.
During the qualification campaign of the NIRSpec (near-infrared spectrometer) instrument mechanism, the actuator could not achieve the expected lifetime that had been extended during the development phase. The initial design could not be adapted to the requested number of revolutions during that phase. Consequently the actuator needed to be modified so that the function of the mechanism would not be endangered or, by extension, the overall function of the NIRSpec instrument. The modification included a change of the overall actuator designâ”internal dimensions, tolerances, materials, lubrication and assembly processâ”while keeping the interface to the mechanism, mass and function.
One of the fun parts of the motion industry is involvement in popular movies! Motor specifications can be a bit rough: "I need to spin a 120-pound actor (and chair) 180 degrees in one-half second. He will be sitting up-right."
The latest offering by machine design experts J.R. Hendershot and T.J.E. Miller is an 822-page brushless permanent-magnet (PM) machine design book that serves as a worthy follow-up to their 1994 work.
OEMs can minimize the cost of ownership by using highly efficient motors and recognizing when unreliable motors are driving up the operating costs of their applications.
Power Transmission component suppliers discuss COVID-19 Threat and how their companies are responding to keep the supply chain connected.
Many industrial facilities with air-cooled heat exchangers (ACHE) and cooling towers often have older units installed. Depending on the age, repairs, and maintenance done over the years it may have had an impact on performance. Upon conducting site inspections of the equipment, it is sometimes found that ACHE or cooling tower components have degraded. This can result in a system that is not very energy-efficient and delivers substandard cooling performance.
PTE Examines Gearmotor and Gear Drive Technology
Condition Monitoring Technology Evolves for Gear Drives, Gearmotors and Gearboxes. Here's a look at what some leading manufacturers are offering.
Zach Rountree's life would be a lot easier if his job site was closer to town. As the owner and president of Rountree Construction, he oversees an operation that pulls 200 tons of material an hour out of a remote lake in Stockton, Georgia. Big equipment demands three-phase power, but out in the remote timberlands of rural Georgia, only single-phase power was available.
Gearmotors handle harsh environments with digitalization, customization and improved service life.
Welcome to the Age of Information, where flexible, intelligent drive systems separate the haves from the have nots
Intelligent drive technology in the cowshed
New Opportunities and Technologies Allow AC Motors to Enhance Motion Control Applications.
This special advertising section features Motors manufacturers.
This is the first of a series of articles on permanent magnet transverse magnetic flux motors - AKA step motors. These articles will be covering the development history and the various drive technologies used with these motors - both open and closed loop.
The transverse flux permanent magnet motor -- also known as a hybrid step motor or hybrid servo motor -- has a wide range of performances, depending upon how you drive these motors, and whether you operate them in open loop or one of the many variants of closed loop methods you use. In this third installment we will cover some of the many ways to drive these motors, as well as how these choices affect the performance of these motors.
With so many load types and motor types, there are many ways to couple a motor to a load.
How it impacts our industries.
A look at several Two-Phase Hybrid Step Motors and their dominant error sources, and comment on how the errors are overcome by true servo operation of these motors.
This article describes how more sophisticated modeling techniques allow the latest software to identify design issues with bearings, shafts, gears and complicated multi-body systems.
A recent trend has been a movement to more user-friendly products in the mechanical power transmission industry. A good example of such a product is a high-horsepower, right angle, shaft-mounted drive designed to minimize installation efforts. Commonly referred to as an alignment-free type, it allows the drive package mounting to be quicker, more cost effective and require less expertise during installation. This facilitates the use of the drive in applications such as underground mining, where there is little room to maneuver parts. The most common application for the alignment-free style drive is for powering bulk material handling belt conveyors.
Today, better fuel economy is a main objective in the automotive development process. It remains top-of-mind with the auto industry and consumers because of costs and environmental impacts. Because the industry’s average fuel-economy standard is required to increase by 40 percent by 2020, manufacturers and engineers are working to develop fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly and reliable designs for vehicles.
Helicopter Makes Maiden Voyage Across the Red Planet with Help from Maxon
The complete Product News section from the April 2021 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Transverse magnetic flux motors -- also known as step motors -- become Hybrid Servos when you operate them closed loop. This is the same transformation that happens between running a 3-phase synchronous motor from line voltage as opposed to running it closed loop as a brushless servo. In the case of hybrid motors, there are many degrees of what is advertised as "closed loop," and thus significant differences in the performance improvements seen.
Are you looking for one simple formula to help you choose between centralized and decentralized motor control? Unfortunately, such a formula does not exist. However, evaluating the overall size of the system, comparing labor and material costs, and maintaining flexibility can help guide engineers in the right direction.
Components like motors, bearings and drives are subject to harsh environments on Earth, but they must be at the top of their game to enjoy space travel. Recent applications from Maxon Motors (Return to Mars) and the University of Michigan (Robotic Legs) illustrate the incredible requirements it takes to handle applications in space and how these components can be utilized here on Earth.
Motion control systems often combine high power drive signals in close proximity (or even within the same cable) with lower level signals, like encoders. You will often see ferrite beads added around cables; their effectiveness in minimizing noise is greatly affected by how they are deployed. This involves which signals are grouped, what are the drive characteristics, and how shielding and grounding are handled in the system.
On the tradeoffs between power density, efficiency and cost for high-performance, electric motors in choosing the most applicable technology for a specific application.
Failure to specify the proper motor for use in a hazardous location can have serious consequences - lost production, extensive property damage, and even loss of human life. Selection of the proper motor requires an understanding of Underwriters Laboratories' (UL) and National Electrical Code (NEC) class, group and division designations and the T code letters.
Lower-cost motor technologies exist that can be an attractive alternative to neo-based BL PM motors - and are not subject to unpredictable supply chains
Explosion-Proof Motors in Division 2 Areas and DC Drive Fundamentals
As manufacturers continually search for ways to cut costs and increase ROI, machine monitoring and predictive maintenance (PdM) solutions are an increasingly cost-effective way for plants and factories to help reduce process downtime.
The skies are full of them in 2018 - drones flying around amusement parks, job sites and even your own backyard. There are drone racing leagues on ESPN, drones capturing wide angle shots over film locations and government drones keeping a bird's eye view on the Mexican/America border.
Industrial mainstay adapts to remain relevant in a 4.0 world
Over the many years, there have been many technical papers and articles about which motor is the best. The short and sweet answer is - let's talk about the application. More recently a number of papers and articles have appeared that compared each motor's advantages and disadvantages in generic or specific terms. Many times, the methods used to drive and control these motors are not completely described due to the many control schemes available for use. A few articles focus on just the open loop step motor and the closed loop servo motor advantages and disadvantages in a laundry list format. This article is attempting to "drill down" into the reasons why and to describe how it is done.
While some organizations focus on real-world analytics and data collection for predictive maintenance, simulation tools and virtual prototyping can be another solution for motor efficiency.
Motor Operation Gets Big Boost from Smart Technology (Here's How to Take Advantage)
New servo drives, gear pumps, stepper motors and more.
The complete Industry News section from the March 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The final installment in our Baldor Motor Basics series covers 50 Hz requirements, as well as motors wet or damp environments.
Microgears for some types of medical technology need to be inexpensively mass produced. But at the same time, they need to be both precise and reliable, even though their design lifetime is relatively short. Here's how microgears were developed for blood glucose measuring devices, insulin pumps for diabetics and other very small devices.
Elastic housing deformation by MESYS, plus new motors, actuators, gear drives and more.
Different motor types favor different application areas. No single style has advantages in all application spaces. Direct drive applications favor hybrid servos while high-speed, geared down applications tend to favor the conventional servo motors.
The complete Product News section from the February 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Framo Morat and Dunkermotoren Produce Drive Systems for Automatic Guided Vehicles.
Efficiency, Size, Space and Mounting Requirements Highlight Customer Requests for No Compromise.
In the late 1940s, the U.S. auto industry started an exciting experiment and spent decades on it. One result came in '63, when the Turbine was introduced by Chrysler Corp., now a part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA). In appearance, the two-door, four-passenger car looked like a regular car, but it wasnââ‚¬â„¢t. Under its sleek shell, the car had a jet engine.
Standing in a factory or a warehouse, you're bound to notice machinery, whether it's a conveyor system that winds across the floor or large fans that hang from the ceiling. You may even notice automated guided vehicles or autonomous mobile robots carrying parts, driving themselves from one section of the building to another. These machines are good candidates for using high-efficiency gearmotors, especially if they're expected to run for long stretches at a time. If they aren't using high-efficiency gearmotors, then they may be costing more money than they should.
Special advertising section from the October 2019 issue of Gear Technology.
Yes, the headline is correct: Autonomous vehicles are not a new idea. In fact, in the 1950s, handsfree driving so interested General Motors engineers that they designed a concept car for it. And in 1956, at its own auto show, the GM Motorama, the automaker unveiled the car, the Firebird II.
Faulhaber motors help seek climate answers in deep-sea trenches
Heavy industry. The phrase conjures images of mines and steel mills, of huge caverns underground, of cavern-like factories, of oldline companies operating heavy-duty machines for hightorque work. That's the image of heavy industry. Today, though, there's also another image. It's of an operator walking a steel mill's floor, looking at his smartphone or his tablet.
Most of us want to just instinctively squeeze a belt between a pair of pulleys to test the belt tension. What is not as instinctive is just how much force such a procedure can put on the shaft -- often significantly past the manufacturer's rated limits for small motors. This can cause damage to both the shaft and the bearings.
Automate Show Examines the Integration of Robotics, Automation and Machine Vision, while Promat explores the latest in material handling technology.
Motion control systems engineers work chiefly in two well-defined areas: 1) new designs and 2) redesigns or retrofits. This article examines the best approach for each option.
The following article explains the commonly used paint components and methods within the gearmotor industry, with a focus on electrodeposition coating (E-Coat). These processes will be described in general, with a closer examination of the E-Coat applications steps. Some pros and cons of each method will be presented along with comparative test results showing the benefits of E-Coat.
When designing spur teeth, is there a formula/guideline/design guide for determining the amount of crowning?
The load carrying capacity of gear transmissions depends strongly on design, material and operation conditions. Modern analysis methods, e.g. finite element analysis (FEA), consider the above parameters with more or less sufficient accuracy. Yet it remains an ongoing challenge to account for backlash and manufacturing errors, despite a definite need to do so.
It is hard these days to find any device that is not IoT-compatible or WiFi-connected. I recently had a new well pump installed that requires an iPhone for setup, which makes it hard for me to check or change the setup since I do not own an iPhone. In Olden Times, you had potentiometers or RS-232 connections - and that was fine.
Thrust cone bearings are an elegant option to handle the axial forces generated by the torque transmission in helical-toothed gear stages. They have proven as an efficient and reliable bearing concept for integrally geared compressors but are nearly unknown in other fields of gearbox engineering. The presented investigations consider three aspects which appear relevant to extend the field of possible applications for thrust cones towards gearboxes constructed with roller bearings.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
When it comes to a steel-gear mesh, there are several common standards and design rules on how to reduce noise emissions in the mesh. But if plastic gears are involved, this is no longer the case. The topic of this presentation is to highlight some of the differences between metal-and-plastic gear meshes, i.e. which design strategies can be stated as valid for metal as well as plastic and which are not?
Gearboxes are important assemblies within mechatronic systems. During the design phase of such systems it is essential to know the gearbox behavior under consideration of dynamic interactions with its environment. Holistic system simulation helps the engineer to understand this and to improve, adjust, or optimize gearboxes and their application.
Here's what one supplier is doing to take advantage of the mobile phone in your pocket.
Our expert explores standard vs. optimized gears, as well as high contact ratio gearing.
I need help determining the diametral pitch needed to achieve the closest center-to-center distance for 2 spur gears. The 1st gear is a 34-tooth and the 2nd gear is a 28-tooth. The center-to-center distance between the gears needs to be as close to 2 1/8" as possible.
Slow speed operation of fan systems within the air handling industry is generally performed due to two reasons: a coast down operation is required for hot (induced draft) fans to cool down before shutdown (often by using a turning gear), and operational efficiency improvements can be achieved during non-peak periods by slow speed operation using a VFD. In either case, when these fans are supported by hydrodynamic bearings, it is the oil film thickness developed from the bearing-shaft interaction that limits the minimum speed that can be maintained without causing premature wear and bearing failure. This paper will present a brief overview of lubrication theory and critical design parameters to achieve slow speed operation.
Does the definition of specific sliding mean the same between ISO 21771:2007 and AGMA 917-B97? In ISO, specific sliding is the ratio of the sliding speed to the speed of a transverse profile in the direction of the tangent to the profile. In AGMA, specific sliding is ratio of gear tooth sliding velocity to its rolling velocity.
Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.
A reader is looking for the best reference materials with formulas for gear measurements over pins.
Cylindrical gear design can be divided into three steps. In the first step, rough gear pair dimensions such as center distance and face width are being estimated. Center distance and face width are directly linked to the available space (housing dimensions) and influence the overall size, weight and cost of the gears.
Power density is a key factor in gear design. Increasing the power density enables engineers to use smaller gears for their applications which lead to smaller and lighter gear boxes. The benefit for example for the automotive industry is less moving load in the vehicles and therefor a reduction of fuel consumption and subsequently a reduction of CO2 emission. The limiting factor for the increase in power density of gears is the material strength in regard to the critical failure mode.
Consideration of dynamic excitation effects in the gear design of two-stage gearboxes for e-mobility.
The main function of rolling bearings is to support load and transmit rotational movement with minimum energy loss. In order to achieve this, bearings are manufactured with particularly good quality fatigue resistance materials, proper design and tight manufacturing tolerances. Particular emphasis is put in both the macro, and micro geometry of the working shapes and surfaces of the raceways. Rolling bearings come in many types and sizes as ball and roller bearings for radial and thrust loads.
SLM Corporation and Nord Drive Systems collaborate on drive technology advancements.
The intuitive modeling techniques in the FVA-Workbench guarantee consistent, valid, and manufacturable gears every time.
Calendar of early 2022 events
Try to gain as much advantage as possible when you do design reviews; they can result in greatly improved designs and can cut multiple iterations out of the process.
In this special advertising section, Power Transmission Engineering features several of the world's leading bearings suppliers and their latest technology.
Special advertorial section featuring the latest technology in couplings from leading manufacturers.
How one gearbox manufacturer took an existing design and transformed it to meet the needs of this demanding environment.
In a research project at the Vienna University of Technology, the KISSsoft design software was used to check a new drivetrain concept and the micro-geometry of the bevel gear stage for a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle).
In the general context of the reduction of energy consumption and polluting emissions, gearbox efficiency has become a major issue.
FVA Offers FE Shaft Calculations in the FVA-Workbench
The integration of manufacturing information into gear design software reduces cost during the design process by avoiding time-consuming back and forth between the design and manufacturing departments. The challenging task for such software is ensuring the design engineer does not need specific manufacturing expertise. Otherwise he or she would be overwhelmed and not use such a feature.
Asymmetric tooth gears and their rating are not described by existing gear design standards. Presented is a rating approach for asymmetric tooth gears by their bending and contact stress levels, in comparison with symmetric tooth gears, whose rating are defined by standards. This approach applies finite element analysis (FEA) for bending stress definition and the Hertzian equation for contact stress definition. It defines equivalency factors for practical asymmetric tooth gear design and rating. This paper illustrates the rating of asymmetric tooth gears with numerical examples.
News from around the industry
A reader asks what are the required parameters to properly specify a gear.
When software goes bad, what do we call it? System failure? Human failure? A virus? A number of words will work. How about this? Glitch. It has that onomatopoeic quality that fairly screams, Downtime! And with good reason -- software-generated miscalculations can have very expensive -- if not perilous -- repercussions.
How does one draw and mesh involute gear teeth in AutoCAD?
Following is a presentation of a gear design based upon a theoretically perfect gear technology, for which an overview is offered for consideration. What follows is a report on the design's testing and subsequent manufacture of a hypoid gear pair for a 1999 Ford Mustang.
The growth of worldwide energy consumption and emerging industrial markets demands an increase of renewable energy shares. The price pressure coming from coal, oil, nuclear and natural gas energy - combined with enormous worldwide production capacities for components of wind turbines - make wind energy a highly competitive market. The testing and validation of gearboxes within the test rig and the turbine environment attract a strong focus to the needs of the industry. The following contribution sums up the typical process requirements and provides examples for successful system and component verifications based on field measurements.
Beginning with a brief summary and update of the latest advances in the calculation methods for worm gears, the author then presents the detailed approach to worm gear geometry found in the revised ISO TR 10828. With that information, and by presenting examples, these new methods are explained, as are their possibilities for addressing the geometrical particularities of worm gears and their impact upon the behavior and load capacity of a gearset under working conditions based on ISO TR 14521 â” Methods B and C. The author also highlights the new possibilities offered on that basis for the further evolution of load capacity calculation of a worm gearset based on load and contact pressure distribution.
Copper's continuing role in energy-efficient motor development.
This paper summarizes the chemical, metallurgical and physical aspects of bearing steels and their effect on rolling bearing life and reliability.
The ball screw drive is an assembly that converts rotary motion to linear motion and vice versa. The ball screw drive consists of a ball screw and a ball nut with recirculating ball bearings...
You may have noticed that the magazine looks different this issue. The new look is part of an overall effort to refine our focus. We wanted to make clear to potential subscribers and advertisers how this magazine is different, why its content is important and where it fits in the marketplace.
When it comes to gear design software, the learning curve never ends. The leading vendors offer various training programs to keep their users well-informed.
A reader asks for clarification on last issue's Ask the Expert column about ball screw sizing.
The mechanical components of your drive system play a major role in overall system efficiency. Don't cut corners.
The complete Industry News section from the September 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The Calendar for events happening in the industry
Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is an important tool directed to the determination of contact patterns, contact paths, and transmission errors in gear drives. In this work, a new general approach that is applicable to any kind of gear geometry is proposed.
Experts gathered at the 9th CTI Symposium to discuss the challenges of reducing noise, improving energy efficiency and meeting the changing demands of the marketplace
In this paper, the influences of various gear parameters on the mesh stiffness are systematically investigated by using the finite element method. The comprehensive analysis shows that contact ratios are the key factors affecting the fluctuation value of mesh stiffness.
Is there a gear software package out there that will calculate the design of spur, helical, worm, and planetary gearsets? Also, we would like a program that calculates stresses and material selection. Finally, we would like to have the program calculate bearings loads, too. Thank you for your help.
The performance of high-speed helical geartrains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High-Speed Helical Geartrain Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double-helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160â“250° F) and lubricating jet pressure (60â“80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling-off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears.
This paper provides a mathematical framework and its implementation for calculating the tooth geometry of arbitrary gear types, based on the basic law of gear kinematics. The rack or gear geometry can be generated in two different ways: by calculating the conjugate geometry and the line of contact of a gear to the given geometric shape of a known geometry (e.g., a cutting hob), or by prescribing the surface of action of two gears in contact and calculating the correspondent flank shapes.
Todayâ™s competitive industrial gear marketplace demands products with excellent reliability, high capacity and low noise. Surface-hardened, ground tooth gearing predominates, but the legacy tooth forms handicap further improvements in capacity and noise generation. Vehicle and aircraft equipment use tooth forms not found in the standard tables to achieve better performance â” with little or no increase in cost. This paper will propose adopting these high-contact ratio forms to industrial use.
Spiroid and worm gears have superior advantages for hightorque and miniaturization applications. And for this reason they are particularly preferred in aerospace, robotic and medical applications. They are typically manufactured by hobbing technology, a process with a typical overall lead time of 4 to 14 weeks.
One of our goals at Power Transmission Engineering is to help you understand, identify and select the best technology for your mechanical power transmission or motion control applications. With every project, you have to decide which components to use, and which suppliers, based on functionality, quality and price. We aim to help you make those decisions informed by providing the latest information on current technology, especially when it comes to mechanical components.
When comparing bearing suppliers, engineers are often left with few options other than to compare dynamic load ratings and corresponding life calculations. Of course, we can look at steel and manufacturing quality; but if we are comparing sources of similar quality, those items may not provide a large contrast. It often surprises people to learn that bearing capacities are calculated values, not tested values. Lately, however, a trend is emerging for bearing suppliers to increase their ratings for higher performance bearings that have premium features such as higher quality steel and specilaized heat treatment. Bearing companies are under intense competitive pressure to make every feature add to the dynamic capacity of their bearings because it is very well understood that an increase in capacity adds to the bottom line.
Engineers typically learn that the bearing L10 life can be estimated using the so called âœC/P methodâ â” or the âœbasic rating lifeâ of the bearing, a method rooted in the 1940s. Major developments have since led to the âœmodified rating life,â released in ISO 281:2007, which includes the aiso life modification factor. In this paper a succession of equations used for bearing life ratings are reviewed, and current bearing life rating practices are discussed in detail. It is shown that â” despite the introduction more than 30 years ago of the adjustment factor of the basic rating life, and the standardization in 2007 of the aiso modification factor â” use of these improved calculation methods are not practiced by all engineers. Indeed â” many continue referring to the old model as a way of seeking compliance with existing, established practices.
A four-point contact ball bearing makes it easy to simplify machine designs that combine radial, thrust and moment loads, because it can handle all three simultaneously. They are primarily used for slow-to-moderate-speed applications, or where oscillatory movement is predominant.
Circular pitch gives me the size of the teeth in my mind, but diametral pitch does not. What is the purpose of the diametral pitch concept? Does it merely avoid pi in calculation?
The availability of high-strength shaft materials, in combination with bearings with high carrying capacity, allows use of slimmer shafts. However, the modulus of elasticity remains the same, so seat design for bearings and gears must be given close attention.
The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Defined in rudimentary terms, an electric motor is a device that uses electricity to create mechanical force. But in 1834, when our story takes place, most people would have trouble understanding the ramifications. That was the year that one of the earliest DC electric motors was invented—by a blacksmith.
Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software can be used for a variety of mechanical engineering tasks, including injection molding simulation of plastic parts, analysis of aerospace components, impact and crash analysis of automobiles and the electromagnetic analysis of motors, actuators, transformers and sensors.
All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-readyâ models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.
Power Transmission Components from Forest City Gear, Kaydon Bearings and Maxon Motors help power NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Regardless of where you do business, when discussing, analyzing or worrying about âœThe Economyâ these days, youâ™re not thinking Main Street - youâ™re thinking global. With that stipulation, it is also accepted wisdom that quality products and sharp pencils are not enough to be and remain competitive. Accordingly, everyone is looking for an edge, an advantage, in order to beat back - or at least keep up with - the competition.
A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors—electrical bearing damage and failure.
The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing right along with the existing focus on high torque. The selection of the most suitable grade and improvement in the fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak when compared to conventional stepping motors.
Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.
The complete Industry News section from the October 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Novatorque energy efficient motors, Portescap smaller-size brushless DC motors, Pittman customized motors, Kollmorgen stainless steel motors, Crouzet expanded motor series, and a report from IHS on rare earth mineral supply.
In looking for potential opportunities to reduce energy consumption via the drive system, a number of areas should be considered.
Power transmission and motion control companies will be on-hand during Hannover Messe 2013 to display the latest technology offerings in key product categories including roller bearings, gears, pumps, motors, transmissions, drive system components, clutches and braking systems.
Everything started in 1800 when Volta developed the first DC battery. Faraday used the DC battery to develop the first electric motor. It used brushes to transfer the battery voltage and current to the rotating disk rotor. This was in mid-1831. Thus was born the brush DC motor.
Step motors come in many sizes and shapes. But they all share one item in common - each step motor type moves in discrete-degree steps. They react to a series of voltage pulses supplied by their basic controller, known as an "indexer." The step motor was the first to accept digital pulses, then move or rotate a prescribed amount without any feedback device. All step motors are position devices without the need to use any feedback devices. They operate primarily in an open-loop control scheme.
This product focus highlights the latest technology in electric motors.
When I woke up this morning, my house was a comfortable 68Â°F, despite the fact that overnight temperatures in the Chicago area were close to freezing. I donâ™t often think about the blower motor that helps circulate the warm air from my furnace throughout my house, but today I was grateful for it...
There are three major types of reluctance motors: all three reluctance motors are non-permanent magnet, brushless motors. They are synchronous motors with a non-linear relationship between torque and current. The variable-reluctance step and switched-reluctance motors utilize the principle of magnetic attraction by inducing magnet poles within the soft-iron rotor, and by energizing a set of coils wound around stator teeth resident in the laminated stator. These two reluctance motors must be sequentially excited to achieve continuous, steady-state rotation. The design of all reluctance motors requires finite element analysis (FEA) software.
The complete Product News section from the September 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
There are more brushless PM motors being made every day. These brushless PM motors are smaller in size -- i.e., less than 50 watts in power output found in hard-disk drives, CD and DVD players and many portable medical devices. Servo systems with brushless PM motors ranging from 50 watts to 50 kilowatts are now challenging the larger electric motor applications. A few manufacturers have pushed brushless PM motors above 200 kW.
Recently I had a disturbing conversation with a colleague here at the office. During the conversation, it became clear to me that my co-worker -- a really intelligent guy whom I respect a lot -- had no idea how even the most simple electric motor works.
A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.
This article describes the challenges involved in designing and implementing microstepping systems.
Video from Maxon Motors, Hannover Messe on our LinkedIn page and the NFPA annual conference on our Facebook page.
The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
A brief overview of the induction motor, including the basics of construction, performance and variable speed drives.
Given that many different hydraulic systems recommend the use of either frequency converters or cyclic control (soft starter technologies), the question must be asked - Which one of these solutions is the most cost-effective in reducing energy consumption and providing the most satisfactory payback time?
A new solution has been developed around the use of microprocessor-controlled prostheses. Just like natural limbs, these can react automatically, adapting to the current situation.
In this paper, Edward Hage, founder of specAmotor.com, an online motor calculation and selection tool, focuses on the overheating of electric motors. Presented here is a calculation method with which the temperature and heat development of a direct current (DC) motor and a brushless motor can be predicted accurately.
Can direct drive technology improve your bottom line? Manufacturers relying upon drive systems in their production process have long sought ways to improve gearbox efficiency. While a gearbox-driven system has been the mainstay for manufacturers, it has also been, among other things, the source of frequent breakdowns, expensive line stoppages and increasingly costly maintenance.
Few industries are experiencing change quite as fast as the packaging arena. Lighter-weight containers are being introduced to reduce costs and energy use, packaging is being redesigned to attract consumer attention and manufacturers are using fewer materials in an effort to address environmental concerns.
Presented is a high-phase, order-induction motor drive for use in a series hybrid architecture. This solution overcomes numerous compromises in current hybrid powertrain designs. Notably, it allows for a vehicle that is competitive in terms of performance and cost.
The Royal Danish Theatre has occupied the heart of Copenhagen for centuries and recently upgraded to a new control system featuring Sprint Electric DC drives to extend the lives of the existing motors, keeping replacement costs down. The Swedish stage design and technology company Visual Act retained most of the original motors and mechanics while providing a much-needed facelift to the stage.
The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing, although the demand had been previously focused on high torque. Also, the selection of the most suitable grade of lamination for improvement in fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak, when compared to conventional stepping motors. Lowering the losses of the motor has enabled continuous operation that was previously impossible. An expansion of the stepping motorâ™s usage into applications where another motor has been used for continuous operation and other usesâ”due to the heat generation problemâ”can now be pursued. In addition, these motors are very effective for energy saving. This paper explains the technology used for lowering the iron losses of the stepping motor.
Calling on engineers and maintenance power plant personnel, industrial users of low- and medium-voltage motors and generators and motor repair shop staff...
The question is whether or not a customer can save time and money using a step motor. It is followed by another on the differences between brush and brushless motors...
The purpose of DC motor protection is to extend a motor's lifespan by protecting it from conditions that can damage the motor's windings--both electrically and mechanically.
The federal government estimates that manufacturing uses about one third of the energy consumed in the U.S., so manufacturing companies can play an important role in building a sustainable future.
KD-Rig Puts Accelerating Developments International in Limelight
The repair-versus-replace decision is quite complicated, depending upon variables such as rewind cost, severity of the failure, replacement motor purchase price and other factors.
CEE/NEMA repair-or-replace campaign saves energy, dollars and downtime.
The recent trend toward using segmented laminations as a means to increase slot fill and facilitate automated fabrication of electric machines comes with a penalty of increased core loss at the segment joints.
Sunnen grows product portfolio with motion control solution from Siemens.
The Baldor Reliance RPM AC Cooling Tower Direct Drive Motor is designed exclusively for the cooling tower industry. This motor combines the technologies of the power-dense, laminated frame RPM AC motor with high performance, permanent magnet salient pole rotor designs.
While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.
The latest in motors technology from leading manufacturers.
Q&A with Harald Poesch, product marketing manager for servomotors at Siemens Drive Technologies.
The obsolescence of materials and processes in the manufacture of traditional DC brush gearmotors has necessitated the development of an upgraded DC brush gearmotor.
The primary driver of an airport baggage handling queue conveyor must be able to operate under increasingly demanding operating conditions, including frequent starting and stopping. The selection of the primary driver of the queue conveyor is dependent on multiple criteria, including dimensional requirements and durability characteristics.
Maxon upgrades tissue removal system for Interlace.
motors with premium efficiency counterparts presents businesses with a significant opportunity to reduce operating costs. A comparison between premium and standard efficiency motors from 0.25 to 10 horsepower is conducted; comparisons of full-load efficiencies are shown, and estimated payback periods are calculated. Methods for calculating the yearly kilowatt-hour consumption and yearly cost savings of premium efficiency motors for this horsepower range are also given. The cost advantages of premium efficiency motors are summarized, and relevant examples of real world cost savings are shown.
An exploration of direct drive motor trends and examples of design uses for direct drives as replacements for gear drives or belt drives.
In keeping with a national push to bring greater energy efficiency to wastewater treatment plants, a Pennsylvania facility used data loggers to analyze motor utilization, a first step toward cutting energy costs and meeting environmental rules.
The SMMA â“ Motor and Motion Association is ditching the slickers and galoshes for this yearâ™s Spring Management Conference, themed âœAfter the Storm: Navigating in the New World.â
Permanent-magnet, synchronous-torque motors offer significant advantages on high-energy-consuming and high-dynamic applications.
The Formula Renault 3.5 is seen as a crucial stepping stone on the way into the premier class, the Formula 1. Ambitious racers do not just bring their talents - they also have highly efficient motors on board to control the throttle of their 530-hp V8 engines.
Electric motor-driven systems are the single largest enduser of electricity, accounting for over 40% of global consumption according to the International Energy Agency.
A machine called Sub1 Reloaded solved a Rubik's Cube in 637 thousandths of a second in Munich.
This issue we cover frame sizes and two-speed motors in our continuing series of articles, courtesy of Baldor Electric, dedicated to motor basics.
In today's highly competitive world, the better someone understands the advantages and benefits of direct drive technology, then the more they will have an advantage in machine building, giving them an edge over their competition.
If there are two things that are in tight supply in the industry, it's time and talent. Manufacturers are always pressured to do more faster, and the industry is producing fewer experts to help them do it, so the industry's had to get crafty and find what time-cutting procedures they can.
Three electric motor repair facilities share best practices for utilizing copper in motor repair, and recommending new motors to replace older, less-efficient motors
This issue our Baldor Basics series continues with the topics of motor temperature ratings and metric motors.
Beginning with this initial installment , and with the gracious permission of ABB/Baldor Electric, we are pleased to announce the beginning of a new series -- Baldor Basics: Motors. This is a collection of basicsdriven, motor-intensive articles authored by former Baldor engineer Edward Cowern, PE, a respected name by many in the electric motor industry. During his tenure at Baldor, Cowern - now enjoying his retirement - was tasked with producing a number of motor- and basics-related tutorials, primarily in response to a steady flow of customer questions regarding motors. Today's customers continue to ask questions and seek answers to address their various motor-related issues. As with Cowern's original introduction to the series, we hope you find these articles useful and would appreciate any comments or thoughts you might have for future improvements, corrections or topics.
New things are invented for theater lighting all the time and theyâ™re usually big, expensive technology-driven devices. Itâ™s the simple things that make you wonder, âœWhy didnâ™t I think of that?â according to Ken Billington, lighting designer. The RSC Lightlock is a great example of this.
Ernest Head (Arnie), CBS and technical sales representative at Motion Canada helped save a lumber industry customer time and money by adapting a bearing solution for another client. Hereâ™s how:
Increasing pressure on many fronts is compelling mine operators to thoroughly examine every phase of their operations. Fluctuating demand that whipsaws mineral prices, government-imposed environmental regulations and rising operating costs related to maintenance downtime all pose serious challenges for the mining sector. Add pressure from customers and stakeholders for more sustainable operations as well as union demands for higher wages, and you have a scenario that requires mine operators to exercise every possible option to achieve more efficient operations.
It's no secret that conveyor systems are the primary market for gearmotors, and so it shouldn't be much of a surprise that gearmotor manufacturers are looking for ways to cater to that market's needs. From Brother's new VFDs to Siemens' Simotics S-1FG1, a lot of the new solutions in the industry have their own unique quirks, but all fall into a few common veins.
When the need arises for linear motion or positioning, there are many choices. One can use an Acme screw, ball screw, rack & pinion, or belts. The cost of a linear motor solution is generally greater than a mechanical linear product, but when one needs highly accurate, repeatable, high-speed motion, then the answer may be a linear motor.
If youâ™re an electrical engineer you know how an electric motor works; if you arenâ™t, it can be extremely confusing. Therefore, hereâ™s the simplified explanation (or the âœhow an electric motor works for dummiesâ version) of how a four-pole, three-phase AC induction motor works in a car.
The complete Industry News section from the March 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
In the process of applying industrial drive products, we occasionally are misled into believing that we are applying horsepower. The real driving force is not horsepower - it is torque. This paper is developed to impart a deeper understanding of torque, its relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads we most frequently encounter.
Part 1: There seems to be a lot of confusion about the voltage standards for motors and why they are structured the way they are. Part 2: The effect of low voltage on electric motors is pretty widely known and understood, but the effect of high voltage on motors is frequently misunderstood.
This is an article about motors - preventive motor maintenance, actually. And something else - mechatronics. In today's high-tech manufacturing and industrial use environments, it is near impossible to talk about equally complex motor maintenance and repair-or-replace protocols without it.
Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)
Conservation through lighting alterations using different bulbs, ballasts and light sources is well understood and easy to achieve. The use of improved efficiency three phase induction motors has not been as accepted. There are a number of reasons why conservation efforts with motors have not been as popular.
Amps, Watts, Power Factor and Efficiency; Approximate Load Data from Amperage Readings; Power Factor Correction on Single-Induction Motors.
Faulhaber Provides Motor Technology for Pipe Renovation Projects
A good deal of confusion exists regarding the factors that determine an industrial electric bill. The following information is presented to help sort out the various items on which billing is based, and to offer suggestions on measures to help control and reduce electric utility bills.
Motor technology thrives in aerospace/defense applications.
The complete Product News section from the June 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Fans, blowers and other funny loads are addressend, along with RMS Horsepower loading.
DC motors possess linear relationships that allow for very predictable operation. For instance, if enough voltage is applied across the terminals of a DC motor, the output shaft will spin at a rate proportional to that applied voltage. You can take the ratio of the applied voltage over the rated voltage and multiply that number by the no load speed and get the running speed.
How to Ensure Reliable Performance, Increased Efficiency and Lowest Total Cost of Ownership.
News about recent products in the Industry
News about industry products.
Rosetta Mission mixes with Maxon, Kim K for one unforgettable photo
Hi. My name is Renee. Iâ™m 12. You might remember me from about a year ago, when my dad wrote about me and the home-made motor project we did together (âœMake the Connection,â February 2014).
Enhancing production with â” and for â” less is the standing order in todayâ™s manufacturing world. Speeding up production while at the same time looking for ways, to cut, for example, energy costs, is a tricky equation with no single answer; where and how management goes about achieving that can take several paths.
How would you compare the efficiency and capabilities of hybrid stepper motor actuators vs. can stack stepper motor actuators?
News from Around the Industry
One of the key challenges in the mining industry today is maintaining throughput in the face of ore grade quality that has declined by 40 percent in the last decade.
John Morehead, national sales manager of Crouzet Motors (Vista, CA), was bunkered down in his office in Palatine, IL surrounded at all points by ankle-deep snow from an unfortunately terrible Chicagoâ™s winter night.
The use of motor current signature analysis (MCSA) for motor fault detection â” such as a broken rotor bar â” is now well established. However, detection of mechanical faults related to the driven system remains a more challenging task. Recently there has been a growing interest for detection of gear faults by MCSA. Advantages and drawbacks of these MCSA-type techniques are presented and discussed on a few industrial cases.
News from the industry about new products.
If you read only one article this issue, it should be Norm Parkerâ™s article on the Chinese bearing manufacturing industry. Parker is an engineer with General Motors, a true industry insider who has become a regular contributor to Power Transmission Engineering.
News from around the industry.
A wide variety of companies displayed mechanical power transmission and motion control technologies at Pack Expo, held in November in Chicago. The event, which is the largest packaging and processing trade show in North America, attracted more than 48,000 attendees, according to show owner and producer PMMI. The four-day event included 2,352 exhibiting companies, an increase of more than 19 percent from the previous show in 2012.
The motors might be small, but the big-brain technology driving these electrical wonders was on full display at the 2014 Small Motor & Motion Association Fall Technical Conference, convened November 4-6 in St. Louis, MO. SMMA, the manufacturing trade association (120 members strong) that tends to the best interests of the electric motor and motion control industries â” including manufacturers, suppliers, users, consultants and universities â” played gracious host to a wide array of presenters from an equally diverse range of sources â” from academia to the federal government. Like gears, motors are most everywhere, as evidenced by SMMAâ™s membership (consumer-, public interest-, national defense- and commercial-oriented) demographic which includes: appliance; transportation; medical equipment; office automation and computers; aerospace; and industrial automation. The associationâ™s mission: To âœserve as the principal voice of the electric motors and drives industryâ and to provide a forum to âœdevelop, collect and disseminate technical and management knowledge.â
Over the past few decades, energy efficiency in motors has become an ever-increasing concern for OEMs and manufacturers alike. With multiple energy bills mandating higher efficiency across ever-broader spectrums of motors, including the most recent Small Motor Rule by the Department of Energy, efficiency has become an essential consideration when choosing a new motor.
When talking about high-end machining or manufacturing applications that include direct-drive technology, one of the key advantages of utilizing this particular transmission method is its endurance. Because of the very nature of direct-drive motors they are able to operate at peak performance levels indefinitely â” without any kind of wear or aging â” as long as the motor isnâ™t pushed past its capacity. Unfortunately, because this isnâ™t a perfect world, unexpected things can happen which can cause the motor to overheat. Whether the heat source is due to a parameter being input incorrectly, or an unexpected external force causing more resistance than expected â” it is important to have certain forms of thermal protection in place. Since torque motors are built in such a way that they cannot be repaired and yet maintain their efficiency, it is vital to prevent any overheating â” thus precluding the need to purchase a new one.
This three-part series on motor management best practices focuses on the importance of instituting a motor management plan as a necessity in effectively administering the electric motors in a facility. The goal of a motor management plan is to take advantage of opportunities for energy savings and increased productivity using energy efficient, reliable motors such as NEMA Premium efficiency motors, herein referred to as âœpremium efficiencyâ motors.
U.S. manufacturers, such as food processors, face an unprecedented competitive environment and must look for ways to be profitable without negatively affecting the quality of finished products.
Th e total U.S. electric motor base exceeds 100 million motors and consumes more than 50% of all electricity generated in the country. Small motorsâ”fractional horsepower to 20-hpâ”comprise 99% of the motor population but consume only 25% of all generated electricity (Refs. 1,3,10,14).
News from around the Industry
Without the sun, there would be no Earth and no life. However, our knowledge about our home star is still very limited. This is about to change. In 2018, the European Space Agency (ESA) will send its Solar Orbiter into space, equipped with a thick heat shield.
Energy costs and downtime can be greatly reduced by instituting a motor management plan. Part II of this three-part series specifically addresses the establishment of a motor failure policy and the development of purchasing specifications. Part I addressed the general aspects of a motor management plan, including the first steps of creating a motor inventory and guidelines for motor repair and replacement. Part III will examine motor repair specifications as well as preventive and predictive maintenance.
News about latest products
This issue we take a long, hard look at motor efficiency, and you should, too. After all, electric motors used in industrial settings are the single largest consumer of electricity in the United States. Upgrading your electric motors is not only good for the environment, but itâ™s also good for your bottom line. Sure, saving electricity lessens the burden on our countryâ™s energy infrastructure. But it also saves you money in the long run.
With advances in modern technology reducing demand for envelopes, manufacturers are finding it increasingly hard to justify investment.
The secondhand on the Doomsday dial ominously spins around the face, slowly but ever so surely inching the motor industry towards its inevitable terminus:
Reducing losses and increasing profits by instituting a motor management plan is what this series of articles is all about. Here in Part I, we discuss how to create a motor inventory and establish repair-or-replace motor guidelines. Subsequent topics in this three-part series will address (Part II) motor failure policies and purchasing specifications, and (Part III) repair specifications and preventive and predictive maintenance, respectively.
News From the gear Industry
Energy efficiency is for more than just motors. Here are some mechatronics companies making sure you get more bang for your buck when it comes to your power bill.
News Items About motor design
1 Pittman Offers Customized Motor Designs (February 21, 2013)
Pittman Motors, a unit of AMETEK Precision Motion Control, offers customized motor designs for high-end motion control applications. Cust...
2 Bauer Motor Design Fulfills Efficiency Standards (November 21, 2013)
The need to convert customers from super price sensitive buyers to intelligent, specification and purchasing entities remains an on-going...
3 Pittman Motors EC042B Brushless DC Motor Designed as an Economical, High-Performance General Purpose Servo Motor (July 27, 2015)
Pittman Motors recently introduced the EC042B brushless DC motor series, its latest DC brushless motor. The high torque density model is...
4 Leeson Electric Extreme Duck Motor Designed and Pressure Tested for Washdown Applications (December 17, 2015)
Leeson Electric has launched the next generation Extreme Duck Motor. The new design is built to ensure that liquids don’t penetrate...
5 Siemens Digital Industries Updates Simcenter Portfolio for Motor Design (December 31, 2019)
Siemens Digital Industries Software recently announced new releases of Siemens Simcenter MAGNET software and Simcenter Motorsolve softwar...